What is the oil and gas industry?
How oil and gas be explored?
Crude oil and natural gas are extracted from different geological sources. Most crude oil and gas fields are found in sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and limestone. These rocks have porosity, and rock permeability for oil and gas to move through and accumulate. The porosity determines the capacity of the reservoir and the permeability determines the productivity of the pool.
Drilling into a conventional accumulation would generally result in at least some flow of oil and gas immediately. To increase fluid flow, water is pumped into underground rock layers. The high pressure of the water creates higher extraction flow rates and makes operating the well more economical.
Precise control of the injected water can be achieved using BCST ‘s KT serial control valve and on-off valve. The max working pressure KT serial control valve we can make is 2500# rating. And water measurement can be achieved by JC090 serial electromagnetic flowmeter.
A different geological source is a natural oil and gas trapped in impermeable rock that cannot migrate into a trap and form a conventional deposit. These are often termed unconventional hydrocarbons, for example, shale oil, shale gas, and coal-bed methane. The precise control of gas and oil can be realized by BCST s JC serial control valve and shutoff valve. And the measurement of oil can be realized by JCLT serial oval gear flow meter ( a kind of Positive Displacement flowmeter ) and JCMF serial Coriolis Flow Meters. And, the flow measurement of gas can be achieved by the JC080 serial vortex flowmeter, JC010serial thermal mass gas flow meter, and JC serial differential pressure flow transmitter.
Because of the very low permeability, an unconventional accumulation has to be stimulated in some way before it will begin to flow. Hydraulic fracturing is a method to stimulate oil or gas.
A mixture of water and sand and other foreign matter is pumped underground. The high pressure of the fluid creates small fissures or fractures in the rock. The sand holds the fissures open, resulting in a higher permeability of the rock and allowing the oil or gas to move more freely from the
rock pores where it is trapped in the producing well.
Precise flow rate measurement of the fracturing fluid and the blending of the additives is achieved using BCST’s JC090 electromagnetic flowmeters. The fracturing fluid’s flow control can be realized by BCST KT & JC serial control valve and on/off valve.
Precise control and measurement of the drilling mud flow rate used the rock cuttings carried back to the surface is essential in preparing the well.
Drilling mud going down the borehole is a mixture of water, sand, and a range of chemicals, making flow measurement difficult due to abrasion.
To measure the drilling mud, the valves and flowmeter made by BCST have to withstand the abrasion of the drilling mud and harsh environmental conditions such as moisture, varying ambient temperature ranges, and vibration in the drilling rig.
BCST ‘s JCMF serial Coriolis flowmeters are used in the online mixing and blending of expensive mud and in custody transfer measurement with an accuracy of 0.1% at the point of transfer to supply mud tanks on site. The online measurement of density and viscosity keeps the mud parameters constant.
Once the well is completed, the production begins. Natural gas and oil flow up the wellbore.
The water collected along with hydrocarbons during the well’s production life is referred to as ‘produced water’.
A significant amount of the produced water is the water that had been pumped underground to increase the flow of oil.
The water is separated from the oil in a oil and water separator. Usually, the volume of the water is stable throughout the well’s life and it is a big challenge for mechanical flowmeters due to abrasive solids.
BCST oval gear flow meter can be used for crude and fuel oils flow measurement, JC 090 electromagnetic flowmeter or JC080 Vortex flow meter can be used for water flow measurement.
Produced water Management and Treatment
Oil production requires millions of water for a well.
Water for injection has to be sourced, transported, or piped to the well site.
Water management plays a crucial role in operating a well. Every drop costs a lot of money, and the well has to be operated aslow cost as possible.
Besides sourcing, transportation, and storage, there are different ways to handle produced water.
Treatment and reuse on-site Produced water is treated on-site and
pumped back underground to maintain the well’s oil flow.
Reusing the water reduces cost and reduces the dependency on freshwater sources.
Produced water goes into the pit or is stored in tanks on-site, from where it is piped or trucked to the disposal well site, stored in a tank and injected underground for permanent storage using high-pressure pumps.
Produced water treatment includes oil/water separation, removing large particles, and additional filtering before being pumped into
storage tanks. Further treatment is required to reduce suspended solids and dissolved solids. This results in thickened sludge which
needs to be handled. The final treatment of the water employs ultrafiltration to remove dispersed hydrocarbons.
Evaporation technology can potentially deliver a distillate meeting drinking water quality standards. Depending on the produced water management treatment and disposal strategy, a range of these treatment processes is used.
Natural Gas Flow control and measurement
Some natural gas wellheads have over 3000 wells that require regular flow rate and flow total verification.
JC serial pneumatic diaphragm regulating control valve uses a linear positioner to move a closure member into and out of a seating surface. They have a body distinguished by a globular-shaped cavity around the port region and are designed to regulate process flow when used together with an actuator assembly. Many single-seated valve bodies use a cage or retainer-style construction to retain the seat-ring, provide valve plug guiding, and provide a means for establishing particular valve flow characteristics. Cage or retainer-style single-seated valve bodies can also be easily modified by changing trim parts to change the flow characteristic or provide reduced-capacity flow, noise attenuation, or reduction or elimination of cavitation. Natural gas regulating control valve feature low noise, with anti-cavitation Valve Trims, outstanding vibration performance, it can extend operating life and enhance control performance for oil and gas project.
JC010 Thermal gas mass flowmeters are used in mobile trucks, one for low to medium flow and one for medium to high flow as the portable system to measure flow from wellhead to the wellhead. The worker can independently move from one site to another, and the data can be transferred via MODBUS to the control room. Connecting at the wellhead atmospheric discharge, JC010 Thermal gas mass flowmeters automatically perform temperature and pressure compensation and are accurate to ± 1%. Unlike volumetric flow meters, JC010 Thermal gas mass flowmeters don’t need pressure and temperature measurement to perform the needed mass flow measurement. It has a repeatability of ± 0.25% over the repeatable flow range.
JC 040 Natural gas vortex flowmeter is also an ideal flowmeter with low cost. Its body can be stainless steel or aluminum alloy. It supports a dual power supply, 24 VDC, and a built-in battery. Once the power is off, the built-in lithium battery can let the meter still work normally. The data in the meter can be transferred via MODBUS to the control room. It has a built-in temperature and pressure compensation sensor. The accuracy is ± 1%.
Vapor /steam control and measurement in tanker loading/unloading
JC serial pneumatic ball valve /butterfly valve /steam control valve supply a good solution to steam control. A pneumatic ball valve, which can be double or single acting standard control mode, has 304 or 316 stainless steel body construction, 2.5 to 8bar input air pressure, minimum 1/4 inch thread connection, default PTFE seat, resistance to high-temperature steam. And it is suitable for the higher operating pressures and temperature application in steam application.
JC serial pneumatic butterfly valve has Pneumatic rotary actuator, it is with high accurate end position setting, it can be used for high flow steam values, it can be used for High medium pressures, and use for a Long lifetime for vapor and steam pipeline.
JC080 Series Vortex flow meters provide the solutions for several difficult tanker loading/unloading applications. JC 080 Vortex flow meters are used to measure the flow of hydrocarbon vapors vented from the storage tanks, both on the tanker and at the port tank farm, to ensure compliance with environmental laws governing waste vapors. JC080 vortex flowmeter is also used to measure nitrogen gas flow for blanketing systems.
What are the different sector oil and gas sectors?
The oil and gas sector has three key sectors, which are Upstream, midstream, and downstream.
What is the upstream of the oil and gas industry? – Upstream is E&P (exploration and exploration). This includes searching for underwater and underground natural gas fields or crude oil fields and the drilling of exploration wells, and drilling into established wells to recover oil and gas.
What is the midstream of the oil and gas industry? – Midstream contains the transportation, storage, and processing of crude oil and gas. Once oil or gas are recovered, they must be transported to a refinery, which is often in a completely different geographic region compared to the oil and gas reserves. Transportation can include anything from tanker to pipelines and trucking fleets.
What is the downstream of the oil and gas industry? – Downstream is for the filtering of the raw materials obtained from the upstream phase. This means refining crude oil and purifying natural gas, and the marketing and commercial distribution of these products to consumers and end-users in many forms, including natural gas, diesel oil, petrol, gasoline, lubricants, kerosene, jet fuel, asphalt, heating oil,liquefied petroleum gas, as well as many other types of petrochemicals.
Many large oil companies are integrated because they combine upstream activities with midstream and downstream operations, which occur after the production phase through to the point of sale.
Control valve and flow meter are applied in every oil and gas industry sector, including exploring, transportation, and refining crude oil or purifying natural gas.
Valves are a vital part of the oil and gas piping system, which means that they play a key role in the oil and gas industry. They can be used to regulate and control flow rates, isolate and protect equipment, and guide and direct the refining process of crude oil.
BCST Supply professional solution for flow control and measurement and wide and sound experience in the Oil and Gas industry. Our JC serial regulating globe control valve can be used to regulate the crude /oil /gas in the pipeline with the standard requirement. If the pipeline is high pressure over 600#, our high standard KT serial regulating control valve is suggested. Its max pressure rating is 2500#. JC serial butterfly valve and ball valve, as well as gate valve, can be used as a shutoff function in the oil and gas pipeline.
BCST flow meter family supply professional flow measurement for water, gas, steam pipeline.